Indian education · Opinionated

Why India Needs Good Social Scientists

The February 9 JNU issue brought out two important issues to the political fora:

  1. That the Indian institution is ready to take any issue and spiral it out of control
  2. That there is a need to not misrepresent and misunderstand social scientists

Indians have fundamentally shunned the social sciences ever since the tech boom or rather since Independence, when our founding fathers, with a background in the social sciences ended up unconsciously putting social sciences in the background in their search for ‘modernising’ India. The social tumult India went through during the years of the Emergency and later liberalisation of the economy failed to ask a very basic question – has India’s quantitative expansion of its higher education system failed to qualitatively discover itself?

483576-443437-kanhaiya-kumar-at-hcy
Image source: DNA

The tussle of the Indian government with JNU brought up very important debates into the public forum. All of a sudden, students of the most prestigious social science institution in India became ‘traitors’ and ‘anti-nationals’. The discipline of history was viewed with scorn when Umar Khalid and Anirban Bhattacharya, students of the History department of JNU stood up in solidarity with Kanhaiya Kumar, the defamed students’ union leader of JNU.

This is not surprising in a country that has failed to produce good social scientists over the years to answer the never-ending debate of why social stigma, social differences and political unrest still prevail in a country that is supposedly a melting point of all the races of the world.

umar-anirban-back-759
Image source: Indian Express

India’s tryst with the study of the social sciences started under the British rule, with the teaching of European enlightenment ideas under their education system in the latter half of the nineteenth century. The ideas of Rousseau, Voltaire, Kant and Aristotle did evoke generations of scholars like Rammohan Roy, Surendranath Banerjea, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Jawaharlal Nehru  and even Gandhi to take forth the mantle of independent thought and action forward in their struggle for India’s fight for Independence. But Independence brought with it an absence of the teachings of these leaders and what they learnt from the European Enlightenment.

Take for example, the Father of the Nation, Gandhi. How many of us in India have been exposed to his teachings in school? Hardly a few can even vouch for having read Gandhi, apart from the regular exposure to him in history books, that has reduced him to a mere political figure.

The Indian diaspora desperately needs social scientists today more than ever before as glaring problems confront India. From Naxalites in the states of Chattisgarh and Jharkhand to disgruntled students to changing voter identities to caste issues, the country needs a force of social scientists that can analyse the differences and formulate social methods to bind the country together. Getting more political scientists or historians into the Civil Services isn’t the answer. The Indian society needs to let writers, journalists, political analysts, think tanks, theatre artists – any form of social dissent thrive, that can question and reform the structural basis of Indian society.

e79dffdd-74a2-40f0-8270-3c260f2836e5_mw1024_mh1024_s
Image source: voanews

We need to understand why institutions like JNU are important for the society. Places that produce research on the social sciences reproduce talent that understands the social fabric of India, understands the behavioral psyche of people, treats people as humans, not resources. Take for example farmer suicides. In 2015, a drought in places like Latur in Maharashtra led many farmers to commit suicide after their crops failed. Politicians treated it as a scenario where the average day-to-day farmer was disgruntled with the credit system, and faced a rising debt in light of little or no crop.

A social scientist would have understood exactly which kind of farmers were being affected by the drought – the marginal farmer with land less than an acre, whose land was divided over generations, because of the Hindu system of land sharing amongst the sons. For him, the need wasn’t a better credit system or a better market rate for his crops – his need was for the government to understand that India still lives in its villages and we need to be prepared for the irregular monsoon by giving the farmers high-yielding varieties of seeds and better irrigation facilities, not bank accounts.

farmer_2_27320f
Image source: The Hindu

Recently, social scientists are being viewed by people who are making use of the identity to pursue a career in politics. And I fail to understand why that is viewed as a bad thing. People like Shashi Tharoor, with a PhD in History are trying to make a difference to Indian politics by using their deep understanding of the Indian system and its failings/strengths to work within the system and produce something relevant out of it.

Politicians in the United States are mostly from liberal arts backgrounds,  and they are people who use their knowledge of American politics and foreign policy to represent their country better on an international platform (I am discarding the example of Trump’s election in this essay, for now).

tharoor
Image source: tehelka

Social sciences research in India has seen dismal growth in the past decade with a rather low number of papers from Indian scholars based in their country’s universities getting published in leading international journals. Even those assuming charge of important institutions like the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) have had papers published in only half-yearly college journals, with their academic research failing to reach an international forum, where feedback is more fierce and emphasis on analysis and quality more rampant.

While the dominance of the Global North in academics can not be denied, there is still a need to retrospect the failings in the Indian academic system that presents rusty social sciences research to the world. This is a scary number as it shows that Indians are failing to question their society, an example of inward regression into non-acceptance of many realities.

T.S Papola puts this in a better way in his paper, Social Sciences Research in Globalizing India:

Major concerns of India as a politically independent nation were seen to be economic in nature, and it was assumed that economic development would lead to resolution of most social problems as well…by reorienting the pattern of growth to make it more equitable and by adopting special measures, mostly economic, favouring the poor and the disadvantaged. As a result, Economics attained the major importance among social science disciplines, in terms of relevance for identifying, diagnosing and treating the problems of Indian society.

Yet, we can’t put the blame on the research universities alone. The Government also needs to set aside money for pursuing research in the social sciences. It’s a commonly known fact by students that it will be easier to get money for pursuing research in nanotechnology or even stem cell research, rather than on deciphering the Indus Valley script. That itself is alarming. Without funding, the Archaeological Survey of India took nearly 100 years to excavate the Harappan civilization and date India’s history back by another thousand years. And now, without further research in the social sciences, the discipline will be open to political conflict and re-interpretation because no new research is being undertaken to counter politically-inflamed views.

Economists now hold top positions in policy-making in the country, but historians, philosophers and political scientists have receded to the background. Interdisciplinary studies have diminished, making every view a narrow one.

India’s Constitution is a standing example of what can happen if only a particular discipline is allowed to prevail. At 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules, India’s constitution is the longest in the world, because it was composed by mostly lawyers. The Constitution ended up being a legal document with numerous loopholes, that answered many questions, yet remained silent on others, making it open to interpretation and potential abuse.

Institutions like the London School of Economics and Oxford have become institutions of excellence because students there are forced to think, and not conform to a certain academic viewpoint. In India, a Bachelor of Arts degree has been reduced to mere rote learning. Students are expected to mug thousands of pages, ready answers to furnish as their own in the examination, leaving no scope for them to think beyond what they can read in their academic text. The vast syllabus the universities aim to complete within three years is also an injustice on the students.

a3
Image source: blacknet

The presence of multiple view points in India present a unique scenario for social sciences research and if tapped, India’s market, economy and society can be mapped on paper like never before. Students, if led on the right path, can grow into conscientious individuals ready to question the things given to them, and can help mend the cracks in the current system.

The discipline of social science gives individuals an opportunity to think, something the sciences can not offer. If we don’t create our own Tagores or Gandhis, then very soon this country will become a walking replica of George Orwell’s 1984. And one doesn’t need to read the novel to understand what kind of state I am referring to.

entertainment · Opinionated · Politics

India’s culture of censorship.

Censorship in India is a cause for anyone with a creative bent of mind, who has the capability to believe that they can judge. Anything even mildly offensive to anyone, if released into the public domain faces the brunt of censorship. MF Hussain and Salman Rushdie can proudly claim to have been the recipients of our censorship. But then time and again, India has stood up for writers like Taslima Nasreen, and despite death threats, given her sanctuary in India. Ashish Nandy, a famous sociologist and historian, despite passing comments on reservation did not have to stop academic writing. There have been instances when India has stood up against ‘incorrect’ censorship, but what is baffling is Indian people’s sensitivity to recent activities. Our democracy is a contradictory one, where every form of creativity, especially in art, requires the judgement and approval of every single community within the country.

It is difficult to even define the culture of censorship we have. We are fine with TV shows like Sasural Simar ka, but we have issues with Sunny Leone gyrating on screen. We want All India Bakchod to come up with hilarious videos criticising the Government of India, and make parodies on Rahul Gandhi and Arvind Kejriwal, but we have a problem with them coming up with a Roast show, where consenting adults decide to abuse each other for fun (and also raise money for charity). All India Bakchod is an exemplary example of a bunch of people who wanted to do full- out comedy in a country like India, where censorship itself is a joke. And what is surprising is that their video had a disclaimer at the beginning – watch it at your own risk. Agreed, sentiments do flare up on seeing someone’s mother and sister abused on screen, but when the same people go watch Ragini MMS 2, or read Fifty Shades of Grey, then where does our censorship disappear?

Foreign imports are tragically considered the ‘culture of the west’ and since they do not ruin ‘Bharatiya sanskriti’ or tarnish it, it is alright to watch it. Right? No wonder we queue up in front of movie theatres to watch Hollywood couples kiss and make out on screen.

What I don’t understand is the discomfort with ‘non- sexual’ topics too, amongst Indians. Religion is definitely a thread, which, if pulled, ruffles multiple feathers. Censor Board Chairman Leela Samson’s recent resignation in January over the clearance of Godman Gurmeet Ram Rahim Singh’s film MSG- Messenger of God, led to a string of resignations within the Censor Board. The film was given a green signal by the Film Certification Appellate Tribunal (FCAT) for release. The film literally promotes a God- like figure, and has been directed by Gurmeet Ram Rahim Singh himself. Our Censor Board already has faced enough flak for clearing films like Haider and Jism 2, then why should there be a problem with such a movie? Movies like Parzania and Water had to wait years to get a clearance, then why did the Censor board have to resign over such a movie, which actually promotes a religious personality? The Censor Board never fails to surprise the Bhatt family, the Indian public shouldn’t express their surprise over such an action of the Censor board.

Censorship by the Censor Board is dictated by political motives and whether the board is trying to move in the right direction or the wrong – the fact has been proven that censorship doesn’t lie in the hands of God, it lies in the hands of certain people claiming to be God (pun intended).

The past one year has been a parody on censorship in India. While on the one hand, a film like PK released, which questioned the meaning of religion altogether, and of course, Aamir Khan’s near nude poster which flared up the nostrils of every well- meaning person in the country who would rather see the statues of Khajoraho wear clothes, Tamil writer Perumal Murugan’s decision to leave writing altogether went seemingly unnoticed by a lot of people. Perumal Murugan’s recent decision to stop writing after Hindu activists started delivering threats to him over his book, ‘One part woman’ which is about a woman’s attempt at consensual sex with a stranger to beget a child has pulled the trigger in Tamil Nadu, where Murugan had to literally seek police protection for his family. But thankfully there will be no need to censor him anymore- Murugan announced his death as a creative artist recently and has decided to lead his life as a teacher.

Is this what our censorship is? Forcing people to stop their creativity altogether? In a country that claims to be upholding its culture, where is the culture if we censor it in the first place? There are statements that others don’t like, there are policies undertaken by the government that other’s don’t approve, we can’t go around censoring everything. If India believes everything is following the path of Charlie Hebdo, then it is mistaken. Our democracy is our censorship, but right now our democracy is a joke and censorship is a parody on Indian culture.

Opinionated

An open letter to the killers of Charlie Hebdo

Dear terrorists,

I am glad you all decided to go and show your dirty faces in public. Thank you for showing the world how utterly passionate and religious you all are. You decided to scream, “Allahu Akbar” and shoot 12 innocent people in broad day light because they published satirical cartoons on the Muhammad. You proved that you don’t know the first thing about Islam.

Today, Muslims around the world suffer because people like you do not accept that there is something in the world that you can not control – freedom of speech. You can not accept that people have mouths and hands, and they can talk and express. But of course, you can express your thoughts, because you are offended!
So what was the first thing you did? Carried Russian guns, entered a magazine office, shot people by calling out their names, ‘execution style’. What did you gain from that? Publicity? Or notoriety?

What is this message you’re trying to spread, I do not understand. What I do understand is that around the world, people don’t fear you anymore, they fear your religion. You haven’t created hatred against you, you have managed to create hatred against everyone who even swears by the religion you all believe in. Why? Because you all don’t know the first thing about Islam.

Islam is about freedom of expression, Islam is about tolerance, Islam is about brotherhood. Islam never talks about killing, Islam talks about acceptance. But by taking the name of Allah, you just involved him in a brutal act of murder. Wonder how religious is that.

You aren’t the only ones who are targeted by ‘satire’. But sadly, no one is as innovatively aggressive as you people. You people have gathered resources to kill your own religion, bit by bit, and it’s amazing how successful you all have become!

Charlie Hebdo killings are just the beginning. The world won’t shut it’s mouth. No one can be forced to. It’s a free world, and you don’t belong in it. You can control your own mouth as much as you can, but the world won’t support you in this one. Because you’re too clouded by your love for aggression, and your love for gaining publicity.

I wish you all, all the success in your endeavour. Keep doing what you’re good at and see where that takes you. I won’t talk about changing you all, that’s what you all are up to – changing the world according to your “belief” system. If possible, then please do not kill anyone else, the world already has too many problems on it’s hands, and doesn’t need you all to add on to it.

From,

A democratic citizen of the world.